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On July the 28th
2005 
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (the IRA) call an end to their thirty year long armed activity in Northern Ireland.
1954 
President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, was born in the town of Sabaneta, Barinas. He is best known for his anti-imperialism, as well as his criticism of neoliberal globalization and the foreign policy of the United States.
1945 
A US Army bomber accidentally crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building in New York. 14 people died as a result of the crash.
1943 
British bombers conducted operation 'Gomorrah' in which the city of Hamburg was bombed. The severe bombing caused a firestorm that killed more than 42000 civilians.
1942 
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issued order No. 227, following the German invasion and advance into mainland Russia, which stipulated that all those who retreated or left their positions without orders to do so should be immediately killed.
1868 
The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted. The amendment guaranteed that African Americans were granted full citizenship of the United States.
1821 
Peru declared independence from Spanish rule.
1794 
French Revolutionary, Maximilien Robespierre, died at the age of 36. He was one of the most known leaders of the French Revolution. He was executed shortly after the revolution by a rivalling faction.
1750 
German composer, Johann Sebastian Bach, died at the age of 65. He is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest composers in history.
1741 
Italian composer, Antonio Vivaldi, died at the age of 63. He was a priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous violinist. Most of his work was resurrected in the 20th century and is now considered as one of the great musical composers of all time.
1655 
French poet, Cyrano de Bergerac, died at the age of 36. His escapades and life story survive to this day, due to the numerous works of fiction that have been created around his life story.
1540 
Thomas Cromwell was executed under the order of King Henry VIII of England on charges of treason.
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